Wednesday, May 20, 2020
The Effects Of Divorce On Children Josie Perez Pima Medical Institute Abstract Divorce is a topic of much debate in the United States. Ã¢â¬Å"Till death do us apartÃ¢â¬ , is the famous vow that married couples promise one another as a sign of everlasting love. However, over the last few years we have seen an increase in divorce rates. If you look back to a few decades ago, divorce wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as accepted by society. Nevertheless divorce has become more acceptable in today s modern society in recent years. Many can argue that the negative consequences outweigh the benefits of divorce for those involved, especially the children that become victims. Majority can agree that due to the serious matter, divorce should not be taken lightly. Living in the United States allows people the freedom to make choices that are not always accepted well by society in other countries. Divorce can be a long and painful process for everyone involved, that is left with emotional and social consequences that take place throughout adulthood. The Impact of Divorce On Children From the moment children are brought into this world there exists a relationship and a bond that most parents hope is never broken. This is also true for the children, who grow up looking to their mother and father as their role models. Children s lives are influenced greatly by what they see and learn from their parents at home.Show MoreRelatedEffects Of Divorce On Children And Divorce1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagestodayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, most people accept divorce or separation as a way of life. Parents are unaware or do not understand the damage it can have on their children. However, in some instances, it is better to get out of an abusive relationship because that can be as toxic as divorce. On average, 50% of children who are born with married parents, will experience divorce before the age of 18 (Children and Divorce Baucom, 2010-2017). Along with divorce statistics, 40% of children in America are raised withoutRead MoreDivorce Effect On Children : Divorce1825 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pag esApril, 2016 Divorce Effect on Children Divorce seems to become more and more common nowadays. Divorce can be a simple or complicated process depending if children are involved. This process can have negative and positive effects in a child s life. A divorce is the legal process of a marriage coming apart. A divorce with children involve cost more and takes about eleven months for the marriage to end. The majority of the divorces happening in the United States involve children. Divorce has differentRead MoreThe Effects Of Divorce On Children And Children1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The effects of divorce on children Throughout time, people from all over the world have chosen to live together, or Ã¢â¬Å"get marriedÃ¢â¬ . Marriage is a beautiful thing, but there are some couples who are unable to maintain their relationship, because they choose divorce as a solution to cope with the problems between husband and wife. Although divorce can be solution to cope with problem between the husband and wife, it still has dangerous effects especially on their children. Children with divorced parentsRead MoreEffect Of Divorce On Children1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEffects of Divorce on Children While divorce may reduce strain on a failing marriage, it may cause damaging effects on the children. Often times parents are too concerned on the marriage to notice the effects on children. From the way parents react in front of the children to new marriages all can directly affect the daily lives, and behavior of children. Though, there are ways to mitigate some of the issues that can come with divorce, possibly avoiding some of the effects all together. UnfortunatelyRead MoreDivorce : The Effect On Children1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNicole Halterman Professor Tausch CTI 102 D Written Communication 4 October 2014 Divorce: the Effect on Children In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, divorce has become a normal occurrence. Married couples today are getting divorces due to many different reasons; conflicts in the marriage, a loss of romantic feelings, perhaps a spouse is having an affair, or other types of problems. Most divorces have children that are really young and due to their age, they do not have any idea how to deal with this type of situationRead MoreDivorce And Its Effects On Children1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages50% of all the children born to married parents today, will experience the divorce of their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ before they are eighteen years old. Divorce in and of itself doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily harm a child, but the conflict between parents does. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior correlates directly with the effects of their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ separation. Deep emotional wounds are created before, during, and after divorce and separation. It is rare that you find a child that actually wants their parents to separate, unless the ma rriageRead MoreDivorce And Its Effects On Children1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknow that the divorce rate in the United States hovers around fifty percent, including forty percent under the age of 21. In that fifty percent one of every six adults is likely to go through a divorce twice. Not only does divorce affect the adults involved, but forty percent of children in the United States will experience parental divorce (Portnoy, 2008). Children with divorced parents struggle with negative consequences emotionally, mentally, and academically compared to those children from intactRead MoreDivorce And Its Effect On Children998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDivorce has become very popular in the United States. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, on average 50% of marriages result in a failed marriage. This percentage has been at itÃ¢â¬â¢s all time high. Not many couples have sustained a successful marriage in present days. Divorces have been around for a long time, and unfortunately kids have a lways been affected the most according to their age. As a result of divorce, there are many children that have to go through this situation at a very young ageRead MoreThe Effect Of Divorce On Children847 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbecome more unmanageable. According to Sirvanli-Ozen, recent studies confirm that the impacts of divorce on children are not restricted to the childhood period but are manifest during adolescence and adulthood as well. Many studies on the subject show that children who have experienced parent divorce have a lower degree of psychological accord and lower socioeconomic status in their adulthood (Amato Keith, 1991b; Biblarz Raftrey, 1993; Ross Mirowsky, 1999; Amato, 1996) and have more problemsRead MoreEffect Of Divorce On Children1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmarriages that end in divorce has been steadily increasing. When a marriage ends children are impacted and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not only emotional and devastating the couples but this also has a huge effect on the children of all ages involved. Many parents go thro ugh a divorce disaster with little knowledge of the effects that the children may go through. Some of the most common impacts that divorce has on children include the fact that children tend to start to blame themselves for the divorce, adjusting in areas
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Culture of Trinidad According to the encyclopedia, culture is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought [www.wikipedia.com].Ã¢â¬ In Trinidad these particular aspects are very distinct to the peoples daily lives on the island. The diversity of actual cultures and ethnicities on the island has melted together over the centuries to create a Trinidadian culture of its own. There are influences from almost every part of the world including, India, China, the United States, Lebanon, Spain, Britian, Africa, and cultures native the Caribbean. Religion is one the most important aspects defining culture. There is no one dominant faith on theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These African religions are extremely important to many who wish to recognize their Ã¢â¬Å"roots.Ã¢â¬ In earlier centuries these Ã¢â¬Å"foreignÃ¢â¬ practices were banned by slaves attempting to hold on to their culture, and over the years they have come to represent a sense of liberation and freedom to be African (Brereton, A History of Modern Trinidad). Overall nowadays the countrys differing religious groups coexist and generally respect each others beliefs and practices. People of one faith openly participate in celebrations of another faith [www.state.gov.htm]. Food is another obvious way to demonstrate the diversity of culture in Trinidad. As are the people, food is influenced by almost every part of the world. There dishes traditional to the Caribbean, prepared with products naturally found on the island. There are dishes with influences from the Spanish conquistadors with their meats and different fruits, also the Indian immigration brought curry flavors and dishes to Trinidad. A very well known Indian dish on the island is roti, which consists of flat bread wrapped around a spicy stew of meat, potatoes, and vegetables. The English, French and Dutch brought large-scale cultivation of sugarcane. Initially the Caribs diet consisted of meats such as guinea pig, alligator, fish, iguana and turtle. Cassava, pineapple and cashews are native to Trinidad as well. The Spanish arriving on the island were intrigued by this method ofShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Caribbean Festivals Essay995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinfluence of African culture, carnivals in the Caribbean took on its own form. It can be understood that the modern carnival was born out of colonialism and eventually freedom. According to Julia Hewitt: In the Caribbean, carnival as a mode of performing resistance, carries the memory of repression and sacrifice, but also of hope, in a sense of becoming other. It is believed that the first Caribbean festival started on the island of Trinidad and Tobago during the 18th century. From Trinidad and Tobago,Read More I Will be an Agent for Social Change Essay1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbackground, and desire to discover a new area of service, I want to volunteer in Trinidad at a halfway house for battered women and children. Having immigrated to the United States from Trinidad as a young child, I have grown up aware of the economic and educational advantages Americans have over their foreign neighbors. I feel that the role of a public servant should not just end at our own borders. As a place for service, Trinidad not only link s my cultural past, but serves as a bridge to my racial historyRead MoreCaribbean Culture Is Affected By Migration1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Caribbean culture is affected greatly by migration. The foundation of Caribbean culture was based on the forced migration of African people, indentured east-Indian workers, the migration and colonizationÃ¢â¬â¢s of European powers like the Spanish, British, and French. The history of each island is individually different but they all share the foundation of a syncretism for development each nationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Over time how individuals would migrate from country to country has changed a lot, especiallyRead MoreBirth And Evolution Of Trinidad Carnival1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBeginning in the late 1700s, the festival known as Carnival was introduced to various parts of the world as a public celebration or parade that involved the use of masks, musical elements, costumes and more. Dating back to the 18th century, the Trinidad Carnival was introduced around the time of the arrival of the French Catholic planters from the French West Indies. The festival originated in the early 17 80s when both white and colored people staged masquerade balls at Christmas time for entertainmentRead MoreEssay about Trinidad and Tobago1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTrinidad and Tobago The beaches here give me a sense of what heaven would be like. As I walk in the pure white sand, I compare it to the white clouds of heaven. While looking out into the water, I cannot tell the where the Caribbean Sea begins and the clear blue sky ends. Continuing to walk along the beach I come across two tall palm trees that grow over each other, creating an arch; that is my gate to heaven. The ebb and flow of the small waves creates a soothing rhythm as I continue to walkRead MoreCaribbean Carnival : History, Performance And Resistance1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescommunity building and commitment to reviving lost art forms such as wire-bending and costume-making. However, in order to understand independent mas in contemporary Carnival one must look to the history of and unpack the conception Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ mas in Trinidad. In her article, Ã¢â¬Å"The Invention of Traditional Mas and the Politics of GenderÃ¢â¬ , Pamela R. Franco challenges the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"traditionalÃ¢â¬ mas, which is characterized by males performing Ã¢â¬Å"authenticÃ¢â¬ roles such as the Midnight Robber, the Moko JumbieRead MoreCedula of Population in Trinidad1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The Cedula Population of 1783 Cedula seemed to have laid the foundation for the development and growth of TrinidadÃ¢â¬â¢s social and economic structure. It was used to attract immigrants to the island. True colonization of Trinidad did not begin until the end of the 18th century, when the Spanish King acted on the advice of a French planter then the historic Cedula of Population was issued. In 1977 it was Phillip Rose Roume de Saint- Laurent a member of an aristocratic French family who helped in buildingRead MoreMusic in the Caribbean1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmany different types of music out there and different performing artists these artists are looking for ways to make money by becoming popular. Music in the Caribbean was first developed by the Neo Indians around 1600 the Neo Indians died taken their culture and music. Music then reemerged when the African slaves came to the Caribbean. The type of music the Africans brought was both lively and entertaining. The slaves found a rhythm in everything they did from cutting cane to taking care of the homesRead MoreExploring The Alienation Theme Of V.s. Naipaul s A House For Mr. 1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestraditionally marginalized by aesthetic ideology of white European males or females. Instead of more attention to canon, cultural studies examine works by minority working ethnic groups and post-colonial writer, and the products of the folks, urban and mass culture, Popular literature, soaps, opera, rocks, rap music, cartoons, professionals, wrestling, food etc.----all within the domain of cultural criticism. I am focusing on it particularly as it concerns questioning the ways western cultural tradition expressedRead MoreDevelopi ng Policies Of Trinidad And Tobago1674 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs I look at the developing policies of Trinidad and Tobago which embraces access to quality education. I found these document which supports our vision, the STRATEGIC PLAN OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, (MOE), (2002-2006). And MINISTRY OF EDU-CATION, EDUCATION POLICY PAPER (1993 - 2003). In the past Trinidad and Tobago has had equity and equality issues (UNESCO, 2003) these were the developing policy that embraces access to equality education for all. And in these documents the government is focusing
Policy is a large part of policing in the United States. Policy helps set law, and law helps keep order amid the chaos if enforced properly. But every policy must be looked at carefully before, during and after enforcement to make sure that policy is and continues to be the best fit for the issues at hand. Sometimes looking at two policies and comparing them can help find a solution in the middle. It is important to give a policy a realistic goal, to accomplish in a realistic time in order to find out if it was truly effective or not. Crime Control Model/ Due Process Model: Crime control model places emphasis on using more police and harder court sentences to help deter and hopefully reduce crime. It utilizes the powers held by the government to protect the people, with limited regards to their rights (Sociology Index, 2013). It favors tougher punishment to crimes and on the criminals that perform them. We will write a custom essay sample on Policy Analysis Paper/CJA/464 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Crime Control model argues that sometimes, persons should give up their rights, to protect and benefit society as a whole. Often people are assumed to be guilty until proven innocent. Due Process tries to focus on the rights of the individuals and limiting the power held by the government. People that wish to limit government tend to favor the due process model over the crime control model. In the due process model, people are innocent until proven guilty, and are not adequately punished until their guilt is well established through the criminal justice system. Each model has their place in our criminal justice system, having both strengths and weaknesses. As society changes, the models must be willing to trade off to adapt to the crime conditions for that time. Both embrace some aspects of the core values of the constitution, and while the ways they can work together are few, they do have their moments. Policies/ Opinion: The Border Search of Information Policy is a policy set forth in 2008 which allows Border Patrol agents the ability to search and seize both printed and electronic materials and devices without needing a warrant or probable cause (CPB, 2008). If an individual is going through a check point or any Border Patrol station, the officers may choose to pull them aside for a random inspection. During the course of that inspection they may go through any and all electronic and printed items (ACLU, 2013). ICE and Department of Homeland Security have similar policies. These policies all seem to throw out the fourth amendment which states Ã¢â¬Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seizedÃ¢â¬ . (Fourth Amendment, 1789) Some argue that this is a necessary right to forgo, to stop such things as child pornography, or links to terrorism (DHS, 2014). I have even heard the excuse of Ã¢â¬Å"If you have nothing to hide, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a problem. Ã¢â¬ I respectfully have to disagree, quoting Benjamin Franklin Ã¢â¬Å"They who would give up essential Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety. Ã¢â¬ (Franklin). Currently this policy seems to favor crime control, and not due process, violating peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s rights without just cause. Roles of the Courts: The courts play a few roles in this policy. One role is as they are prosecuting the violations several cases might get thrown out due to the constitutionality of the search. Courts have the power to look at this policy, and try to find a way to fix the constitutional rights that are being violated within before people that deserve to get punished, get set free to continue their illegal activities. If this does not change, many more innocent people maybe hurt as their rights are violated trying to attempt to catch people that will try to get away with a crime any way they can. Some may think they have nothing to hide, that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done nothing wrong, only to be caught because in a text message they talk about something private that may raise questions in the eyes of the officer. Conclusion: . The people need to know that they are going to be innocent until proven guilty and they have to trust that the government always has their best interest in mind. This includes keeping their essential constitutional rights in mind, and protecting them from possible abuse of power by officers who feel above the law. Due process and Crime control models do have their place, and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s courts must attempt to find a balance between the rights of the individuals and the protection of society. By analyzing the policies at hand, and establishing clear boundaries ensures that the criminals are caught the correct way, and the rights of the innocent people are left undamaged.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
According to Charles Darwin, natural selection is a process whereby the survival of different living organisms depends on their gradual adaptation to certain environments over many generations. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Natural Selection Theory specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is commonly known by the phrase, Ã¢â¬ survival of the fittestÃ¢â¬ , which means that only the species that have well adapted to their environment, is well suited to survive in that habitat. The theory of natural selection by Charles Darwin also states that, variations in size, shape, strength, and color do occur naturally in all living things. These natural variations, called mutations through evolution, affect which living organisms will survive to live long enough to reproduce. For instance, animals with traits or qualities that are well suited to their environment, such as long legs in wading birds, are more likely to surv ive long enough to breed than others of their species. When these animals breed, they may pass on the favorable traits to their offspring through their genes, while those with unfavorable traits are most likely to die without reproducing. As more and more organisms in a particular species inherit a favorable trait, the gene becomes more common in the population, and so the species changes. Reactions to Charles DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Creation Theory DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution by natural selection encountered a sharp reaction especially at Evangelical Protestantism, since it greatly undermined the story of creation by God and current defenses of the faith at two critical points. By implication, it questioned the audacity of accuracy of the Bible, which had been his most important exhibit in demonstrations of Ã¢â¬Å"evidencesÃ¢â¬ for Christianity. Secondly, Darwinism, as the theory came to be known, also totally reversed the perceptions of the relation of science to the Ch ristian faith. In the mid-nineteenth century, American Christian apologists rested their case heavily on the argument through scientific revolution, by uncovering some of the marvels of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s intricate and awesome design of the universe. They argued that it was inconsistent to rationally believe that such a complex and orderly system could lack an intelligent designer. In addition, the Protestant reactions to Darwinism did vary considerably, they argued that if Darwinism had to do simply with biological development, the process it posited could only be subsumed under GodÃ¢â¬â¢s providence, and they suggested that evolution was a way of God doing things.Advertising Looking for essay on anthropology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More LamarckÃ¢â¬â¢s theory During this period, the American scientific arena was dominated by a formidable number of scientists who did not find the natural-selection hypothesis adequate enoug h. A few naturalists endowed with much flexibility of mind also doubted the immutability of species. Majority of the scientists held allegiance to Jean Baptiste LamarckÃ¢â¬â¢s theory that evolution was evident as organisms adapted to environments to meet their biological needs out of resources in such environments and the instruments that they effectively employed would develop further, while the inefficient ones atrophied. These features according to LamarckÃ¢â¬â¢s theory were inheritable, and the species were directed towards a goal whose progress seemed inevitable. So, with the perception of Lamarckism, progressive religionists quickly adapted and saw evolution as GodÃ¢â¬â¢s way of doing things. One example given by Lamarck to support his theory was that, ancestors of modern giraffe were deer like animals with short neck and small forelimbs, and so for it to survive, a giraffe had to stretch their necks so as to feed on the tall trees which had remained from a period of drought. Due to the continuous stretching, the length of the neck and forelimbs increased, therefore making all acquired characters inherited. This essay on Natural Selection Theory was written and submitted by user Artur0 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
huck fin essays 1. When all four of them are back on the raft, the Duke disguises Jim as a sick Arab so he can stay on the raft by himself and not be judged a runaway slave. 2. On their way, they meet a young man, and the Dauphin introduces himself as the Reverend Alexander Boldgette. The man tells him that he had hoped he was Mr. Wilks, whose brother Peter has just died. Peter's brothers are in England and word had been sent a couple of months ago when Peter first took ill. One of the brothers, Harvey, is a preacher, and the second, William, is deaf and dumb; they have inherited a fortune from Peter. The Dauphin asks all kinds of questions about the Wilks family and the town, and the young man supplies all the information. 4. The two men are able to hoodwink everyone except Dr. Robinson, who suspects that there is something fishy about these two men. He does not believe they are the brothers of Peter Wilks. Dr. Robinson sees through their fake Greek and English accents. He leaves to try and find out the truth 5. When he sees how gullible and trusting the three girls are, Huck realizes that he is allowing two despicable frauds to rob them of their inheritance. 6. Duke disguises Jim as a sick Arab so he can stay on the raft by himself and not be judged a runaway slave. The Duke and Dauphin dress up in the new clothes they have bought and think about boarding a 7. When he realizes that the scoundrel is going to try and seize the dead man's fortune, Huck is disgusted, but does not feel he can do anything to alert the people against them. At the end of the chapter, Huck says that the scoundrels make him "ashamed of the whole human race." It is the first time in the book that he has made such a strong moral judgment and shows th ...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Cannabis in the USA Hemp and Cannabis has had a long, complicated history in the United States. Originally used by colonists for textile and industry, the way cannabis has been utilized has had a lasting effect on American society. Currently outlawed by the federal government, the use of cannabis has gone through many changes in recent years. By targeting minorities through the judicial system, being part of the war on drugs, and social prejudices- recreational cannabis use has been influential in mass incarceration, institutionalization of minorities, and prevented thorougeh medical research until recent. With the perception and status of marijuana in the United States rapidly changing, its effect has shifted American society. During the 1600s the colonies of Virginia, Massachusetts, and Connecticut had farms grow hemp to promote industry and economic stimulation. Used to manufacture rope and textile, the versatile plant had a varying implementation worldwide. Being extremely strong in its fibers and its durability caused many early farmers to utilize hemp and cannabis as their primary source of income. Being brought to the americas by the english navy, according to historian Martin booth, and was intended to be planted on over 10,000 acres once it reached the Americans. As colonists expanded they were introduced to the Native Americans species of the plant. This is when history of cannabis would transform. Before the 18th century the only smokable version of cannabis was hash, but as cannabis sativa was introduced to famers its use changed and marijuana was found in the americas. Although the female plant was smoked around the world in ritualistic tribal practices, the americas had yet to explore the plan ts intoxicating effect. Although its recreational us existed, the more popular and common use of the plant was medicinal. Used in tea to treat coughs, or as a painkiller marijuana became very useful in colonial america where modern medicine was not nearly advanced. This impacted the society of colonists as planters were able to sell and profit off the plant fairly easily. Its versatile use brought industry and economic development to colonists at a time where they sought to find their place on a new frontier. It wasnt until 1937 when marijuana use was criminalized in the United States, but this policy change came from a long social prejudice towards the plants and its users. When the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed in 1906 the perception of marijuana was seen by the public as an over the counter remedy as well as a drug used by the Mexican. Stories and rumors of nightmares and mania due to the affiliation with the culture of Mexican and colored peoples in American. As fearful sentiment grew, the campaign to make cannabis illegal grew. Because hemp production remained relevant, special interests were looking to control its production. This is one of the reasons legislatures pushed for its illegalization. State by state legislatures of the 1900s used the combination of racism and industrial instability to successfully outlaw cannabis federally. The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was the last step to restricting hemp and cannabis usage to wealthy industrialists and medical professionals. The ef fect of pushing this plant from the mainstream was it handed growth and distribution of the plant, now labeled drug, into the underground and criminal sector. Useful in many ways, the use of marijuana was not able to be fully prevented. By the 1960s the perception of the plant changed dramatically. No longer being socially embraced, marijuana was now a part of the drug community- leading to the perception that it is a gateway drug. In fact, marijuanas classification as a schedule I drug was justified vary minimally and actually goes against the DEAÃ¢â¬â¢s own definition. The DEA labels a drug schedule I if it posses a high potential for abuse, yet the studies done during the 1940s show that the plant is not as addictive and harmful as the public perceived. This had a long lasting effect not only on politics, but also on the social dynamics of areas infested with drugs. As President Richard Nixon was elected there were a few key problems on his agenda. Along with solving wars abroad, one of the cornerstoneÃ¢â¬â¢s of nixonÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign was to reduce the rampant use of drugs in America. With the so-called crack epidemic at large, legislatures scrambled to find solutions. President NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s solution was proposed as the Ã¢â¬Å"War on DrugsÃ¢â¬ - making drug abuse public enemy number one in the United States. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s poor neighborhoods were littered with drug use, marijuana being included in the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the issue, and led to many policy changes which would unfairly punish those in possession of small amounts of schedule I drugs. Mass incarceration, drug addiction, and social injustice all became entangled in a number of policies all hidden behind the government initiative to Ã¢â¬Å"fightÃ¢â¬ drugs. The government campaign claimed to prevent new addicts, and rehabilitation of those who are addicted, but in reality it would be directed toward eradication, interdiction, and incarceration. Cannabis played a large role in enabling corrupt and racist government officials to institutionalize people of color into a prison pipeline. Marijuanas controversial acceptance by some in the US government showed that the plantÃ¢â¬â¢s mis-classification caused extreme detriment to those in impoverished and uneducated communities. The funding for programs of education, prevention, and rehabilitation were cut from an annual average of $386 million to $362 million. This trend had enormous impacts on the targets of the war as the administration and policy makers targeted the wrong issue, and only fed the fire. Less education and more jobs left those suffering from addiction to dive deeper into their problems, until they were locked up, most likely for life. Sentences for minor drug possessions increased dramatically, and started the problem of mass incarceration in the United States. Sentences for these offenses changed once Congress enacted an abundance of laws requiring specific minimums of five or ten years or more for specific criminal acts regardless of the circumstances in which they might have been performed or the character of the guilty party. These statutes were confined to drug offenses.. In effect, the guidelines took the sentencing power away from the judiciary and handed it over to the prosecution. It was the focus on race which increased racial disparities in the judicial system. These systemic inequalities caused African Americans to be incarcerated at more than 5 times the rate of whites, according to Ethan Nadelmann in the Foreign Policy. Yet as years passed, so did legislation to a path towards legalization of marajuiana. In 2012 Colorado and Washignton became the first states to legalize recreational use. By taxing and regulation the use of marajuana, many changes and benefits were seen. The I-502 bill was able to be passed because of the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s change in perception of marijuana. With 9 states following in 2018, citizens around the nation understood and came to accept recreational use. In colorado the effects were tremendous. Providing billions of dollars in revenue, the state was able to increase funding to publc works and education. The legalization process was extremely influential in pursuading other states to follow the trend as the economic boost was undeniable. The perception of marijuana in the United States changed mostly because of scientific research which was able to open the eyes of lawmakers and constituents alike. In understanding the plants possible applications in cancer treatment, tumor reduction, as well as its holistic versatility- states have become more willing to push towards legalization. The next step, it seems, is decriminalization as many victims of the war on drugs and disciminatory policing still remain behind bars for minor possession charges. With many support groups around the nation growing, many states look to the plant to bring an economic stimulant to their state.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Results presentation and discussion - Essay Example However, the difference in the distance travelled by the 3 phages shows that type IV PILI is needed for infection. PAO1 travelled the greatest distance close to 2.5 cm while CHA (27641) travelled the least distance. In order to determine if the results (distances moved) obtained in the laboratory correlates or relate to what other researchers have found in the past, one sample T-Test was used. The output results below (table 2) show that the p value is less than 0.05. This means that there is a statistically significant difference between the value obtained in the previous researches and the one got in this study. The spot assay was done to establish whether one phage is more infective than another. This is in terms of a broader host range. Basing on the table 2 below, it is observed that Phage 2 and 3 infect closely the same strains of P. aeruginosa. The strains infected by the two are PAO1, PAK, AA2, AA43, AMT0060.1, CHA (27641), IST27N, and AMT0060.3. Phage 4 is different in the strains it infects which could be caused by a difference in its progeny as compared to phages 1 & 2 therefore giving it a disadvantage. The presence of a spot in the spot assay showed that the phage can infect the P. aeruginosastrain by horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, from the results, phage 2 and 3 had a higher infective power. Strains that include IST27MUC NN2 AND AMT0023-30 are resistant to all the three phages. This is mainly due to their genome which makes them resistant to the infection. The source of the strain is also significant in determining its properties and whether it will be infected. The strain s from children are more susceptible to infection compared to that from adults (Burns et al. 2000). According to figure 1 above, it is observed that phage3 has a greater infective power, followed by phage2 and phage 4 has the least infective power. It is also seen that Phage 2 has 53%, phage 3 has 73 % and phage 4 has 33%. Plaque assays